This prospective study was done in Basrah General Hospital, from June 2009 to December 2011. It included 92 hips in eighty one patients affected clinically and radiologically by femoral head avascular necrosis. They were 50 males and 31 females, mean age 41 years with a range of 15-67 years with stage II-IV of femoral head AVN according to Ficat and Arlet radiological staging system. The aims of this study are; to know the pattern of avascular necrosis of the femoral head, and to evaluate the outcome of the different surgical modalities. Surgery was conducted in form of; group I includes twenty four hips (24.4%) which were treated by core decompression (12 hips =12.2% by multiple small drilling (group I-a); seven patients were satisfied with the result of surgery. Infection was reported in one patient. Twelve hips =12.2% by wide bore drilling "gutter" and bone graft(group I-b); nine patients were satisfied by the result of surgery). Group II includes fifty three hips (54.1%) which were treated by total hip arthroplasty (25=25.5% cemented THR (group II-a); seventeen patients were satisfied with the procedure; Complications were reported in three cases, and 28=28.6% cementlessTHR (group II-b); twenty one patients were satisfied; complications had been encountered in five cases); five patients had bilateral hip surgery. Group III includes twenty one hips (21.4%) which were tackled by Girdlestone (resection arthroplasty); six patients had bilateral hip surgery. Only nine patients were satisfied with this procedure.
In conclusion, core decompression surgery in form of wide bore drilling with bone graft is suitable treatment for early stages of avascular necrosis. Total hip replacement is suitable option for AVN in advance stage. Resection arthroplasty still is an option for patients in certain situations (e.g. infection), although the results were less favorable.