1 Basrah Teaching Hospital

2 surgery, college of medicine, university of Basrah, basrah, Iraq

3 College of Medicine, University of Basrah, Basrah, IRAQ.


Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation are constantly connected with a reflex sympathetic reaction bringing about tachycardia, hypertension and dysrrhythmias. This may cause harm in high hazard patients. Different pharmacological methodologies have been utilized to limit or weaken such a reaction.
 This study aimed to assess the hemodynamic changes following laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation following propofol induction utilizing a standard anesthesia procedure and to analyze the capability of lignocaine and fentanyl in lessening the cardiovascular reaction to laryngoscopy and intubation amid general anesthesia.
 Sixty patients aged between eighteen to fifty years, of either gender and ASA class I, weighing between forty to ninety kilograms were planned for elective procedures and were haphazardly allotted into three groups of 20 each. Induction of anesthesia was standard for all patients who received propofol 2mg/kg i.v. and were relaxed with succinylcholine 1mg/kg i.v. The first group received 10cc. normal saline, the second group had fentanyl  2µg/kg i.v.  bolus and the third group got lignocaine 1.5mg/kg 3 minutes before laryngoscopy and intubation. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded noninvasively on arrival to the theatre and considered as a base line record, just after induction and then 1,3,5,7 and 10 minutes following intubation.
 There were no difference in statistical analysis between the groups regarding number, gender, age, weight and ASA class. There is significant rise in heart rate, systolic BP, diastolic BP and MAP in control group particularly in the first 3 minutes following intubation (p<0.05). Both fentanyl and lignocaine gave minimal protection against rise in heart rate after laryngoscopy and intubation and there is no significant difference between the two drugs (p>0.05). Both fentanyl and lignocaine were equally effective in prevention of major rise in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial blood pressure.
 In conclusion,  Fentanyl 2µg/kg and lignocaine 1.5mg/kg are both equally effective for attenuation of  laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation pressor response.
Keywords: Attenuation, changes in hemodynamics, laryngoscopy, endotracheal intubation, propofol, fentanyl, lignocaine.