Keywords : Trauma
DOES ANTICOAGULANT THROMBOPROPHYLAXIS INCREASE BLEEDING COMPLICATIONS IN SPINAL SURGERY AND SPINAL CORD INJURY? A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS
Basrah Journal of Surgery,
2020, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 9-20
This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis. The routine use of anticoagulants for the prevention of venothromboembolism in spinal patients is controversial and the risk benefit analysis is poorly described. The objective of this study is to collate the current evidence and quantify the risk of bleeding associated with anticoagulant thrombophylaxis in the spinal patient, both in the elective and trauma settings.
Medline, Embase, Cochrane Trial Register databases and the grey literature were searched. Data were pooled via a meta-analysis from randomized trials and cohort studies comparing the rates of spinal epidural haematoma and wound haemorrhagic complications in spinal surgery patients receiving low molecular weight and low dose unfractionated heparin (LMWH/UFH) thromboprophylaxis and those not anticoagulated. The risk of bias within individual studies and across all the studies was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tools and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) tool, respectively.
The meta-analysis included 10 studies of 96,042 patients with 1,007 relevant bleeding complications. A significant increase in the risk of extra-spinal wound haemorrhage was found in patients receiving peri-operative LMWH/UFH thromboprophylaxis compared to controls (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.18-2.06, p=0.002, I2=8%). The same comparison revealed no significant increase in the risk of spinal epidural haemorrhage (OR 1.20, 95% CI 0.65-2.22, p=0.56, I2=0%). The quality of evidence for both outcomes was low. There was insufficient data to conclude about the risk of haemorrhagic complications in spinal trauma and in patients receiving non-heparin thromboprophylaxis agents.
In conclusion, the results of this study raise concern about a possible increased risk of extraspinal wound haemorrhage associated with LMWH/LDUFH thromboprophylaxis in spinal surgery. Level of evidence: Therapeutic level III.
THE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF CERVICAL SPINE IMMOBILIZATION IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL SPINE FRACTURES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Basrah Journal of Surgery,
2020, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 38-45
As both life expectancy and average population age continue to rise, so too does the incidence of cervical spine (c-spine) injuries. C-spine fractures are associated with high morbidity and mortality, but the question is how best to treat them?
This review is to compare the safety and efficacy of c-spine immobilisation in a rigid collar with other treatment modalities in elderly population. Available literature was reviewed to determine how treatment efficacy is assessed, with particular focus on whether osseous union or fibrous non-bony union should be considered as a successful outcome.
This study was designed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Pubmed/Medline databases were selected for analysis.
When considering patients over the age of 65, it is unclear whether management with a collar is safer than operative management or immobilisation with HALO vest. However, amongst studies that further subdivide elderly patients according to age there is more of a consensus; it appears that in those under the age of 75, operative management is safer, whereas in those over the age of 85, immobilisation in a collar is associated with lower mortality rates. Between the ages of 75-85 there is less clarity. Osseous union occurs more commonly in patients managed operatively, but fibrous non-bony union was not associated with any adverse outcomes in these studies.
Conclusion: At present, there are no randomised controlled trials that have tried to delineate whether management in a collar is safer or more effective than other treatments such as HALO vest or operative fixation. However, evidence from various cohort studies does suggest that “elderly” patients with c-spine fractures should not be considered as one homogenous cohort, but should instead be subdivided according to age. Interestingly, these studies suggest that fibrous non-bony union may be an adequate treatment outcome in older. Further research into this complex field is required.
Keywords: Trauma, elderly care, spinal fractures, treatment outcome, survival rate